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How to arrange drainage around the house?

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Drainage of the foundation is necessary to drain groundwater from it or drain the soil if it is waterlogged. Drainage of the foundation is included in the package of measures for waterproofing the foundation. The need for this arises for the reason that moist soil is able to expand during freezing and, accordingly, to destroy all existing buildings, including the foundation of the house.

Strip and slab foundations are most affected by “heaving” soils. When choosing any of these base options, a drainage system is needed. To make a drainage system around the foundation with your own hands is quite simple, it is enough to find out the level of soil freezing and the depth of groundwater flow.

Drainage: what is it and why do it

To protect buildings from internal flooding, drainage is used. This is a drainage system designed to eliminate the excessive accumulation of water around a house or land. This is especially important for houses located in the valley. Water can accumulate around objects due to various reasons: it can be melting snow, an increase in the level of ground moisture, and the special properties of this type of land. And also because of the special location of the building, due to which the water around it cannot independently drain.

The owner of the house should think about building a drainage system in the following cases:

  • elevated groundwater levels are normal in this area,
  • if liquid starts to accumulate in the basement due to melting snow,
  • in the corners on the floor of the ground floor premises mold began to appear,
  • if the foundation of the building is constantly wet or washed with water,
  • the area is characterized by high rainfall,
  • the soil on which the house stands, by its natural properties, does not absorb moisture well,
  • fungus began to appear on the walls,
  • plot with a house located in a lowland.

In practice, drainage is a device based on pipes that remove excess moisture entering them. Experts advise always to create such a system, since it is an effective method of extending the life of any buildings.

Types of designs

Before you do the drainage around the house with your own hands, you should decide on the desired option. There are several ways to do this. If the drainage is done correctly, then any of the methods will be effective. But each requires different time and financial resources.

You can equip these types of systems:

  1. Outdoor drainage. This method is quite simple, and consists in creating open trenches (ditches) around the house where water will drain and then absorb into the soil. Despite the simplicity of the construction of such a drainage system, outwardly it looks unpresentable, and quickly becomes worthless - trenches crumble and break.
  2. Closed drainage. This method involves laying perforated pipes in trenches of the earth. Moisture gets into them and moves away from home. This method is the most effective, but relatively complex in terms of execution.
  3. Backfill drainage. Here you need to dig ditches around the object, as with the open method, and then fill them with crushed brick, gravel or rubble. Trenches are closed by turf. This method of drainage is durable, but has a low degree of moisture transmission. Backfill drainage is almost impossible to maintain.

Do you need wall drainage around the foundation of the house?

Many developers decide to build a house with a basement. The cost of building a basement is comparable to the cost of building an ordinary floor.

In the basement, you can have only non-residential, auxiliary rooms - a laundry room, a gym, a sauna, a boiler room, a workshop, a pantry, etc. All these rooms with the best comfort and convenience would be located on a regular floor or attic.

In the recent past, it was decided to build houses on strip foundations of deep laying. The device in such a basement house was really beneficial - the foundation served as the outer walls of the basement premises.

Application in modern low-rise construction of lightweight structures and shallow foundation makes the device in the basement house unprofitable.

Nevertheless, lovers of tradition and solidity often choose a house with a basement on a strip foundation of deep laying. To comfortably use the rooms in the basement, the basement must be protected from soil moisture.

Wall drainage

This design is created along the perimeter of the foundation. If the house has a basement or ground floor, it is better to make just such a drain. Of course, it is more correct to foresee it at the construction stage, when the foundation is only being erected and the area around it is not filled up.

If the house has long been erected, wall drainage is also quite realistic to create, but large-scale excavation work will be required.

Features of the arrangement of wall drainage:

  • Pipes are laid in the excavated areas, they should lead to the viewing wells from the corners.
  • The lower edge of the equipment should be adjacent to the final reservoir, which leads to the site.

How to protect a basement or ground floor from water and moisture

Water in the ground is constantly present. The groundwater level, the amount of overhead water, the soil moisture in the area vary according to the seasons of the year and depend on the structure and properties of the soil, rainfall, terrain and type of coating on the site.

If the house is located on a slope, then, as a rule, it is necessary to drain water flowing down the slope from the house. Water flows down the slope both on the surface and on the underground horizons.

To protect the basement from water, two lines of defense are arranged:

  1. An annular drainage around the house, at the level of the base of the foundation, which intercepts and diverts from the basement walls most of the water tending to flood the basement.
  2. Waterproofing the walls and floor of the basement, designed mainly to protect against capillary moisture of the soil.

Only basement waterproofing, without drainage, leads to the fact that water still finds a hole. If not immediately, then after a few years. Raw basement - money down the drain.

If you decide to make a basement or ground floor in the house, then I recommend to do wall drainage, you will not regret.

Wall drainage is done simultaneously with the foundation device.Its cost is minimal, compared with the cost of protection against water already flooded or damp basement.

If you want to take a chance, save on a drainage device and abandon its device, then conduct a thorough investigation. Estimate the seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level on the site. Does a spring appear in spring. Find out from the neighbors if they have drainage or if they are drowning the basement.

The lack of drainage, as a rule, will require strengthening the waterproofing of the foundation and increasing the cost of its installation.

The design of the wall drainage is adapted solely to protect the basement or ground floor from the water. If it is necessary to solve other problems, for example, to lower the groundwater level in the entire area or to reduce the water saturation of the heaving soil at the base of the foundation, then other types of drainage are used.

The installation of wall drainage around the basement, as a rule, is mandatory:

  • With a constant or seasonal rise in groundwater level above the base of the foundation.
  • If a spring appears on the site in the spring.
A drainage device is mandatory if the seasonal groundwater table (groundwater level)
or the tip is higher than the bottom of the foundation.
  • For a house located on a slope, from the side of the water running down the slope.
  • If the site has a waterproof layer of soil.

The last condition is caused by this. A foundation cushion of the foundation and the sinus of the foundation pit under the foundation is usually covered with permeable soil to reduce the forces of frost heaving. If the soil on the site is waterproof, then surface water will seep into the permeable backfill of the foundation and accumulate there.

Ring (trench) drainage

This type of drainage is arranged further from the foundation than the wall. It is necessary to retreat 2-3 meters from the building, and then do the work. Ring drainage is mainly used on clay soils, since there it is quite simple to create and use. If the house does not have a basement or basement, this system will be the best option.

Features of the arrangement of ring drainage:

  1. A clay castle distinguishes between the foundation and the design of the drainage system.
  2. This type of drainage should be created deeper than the lowest point of the foundation.
  3. Drainage products should be placed on a layer of crushed stone or small stone, since these materials pass water well.

Where to direct water from the roof

Water flowing from the roof through the drainpipes should not leak into the ground near the walls of the house.

You can find a description of the device of the drainage system, which directs water from the roof to the wall drainage pipes. In this case, the near-wall drainage pipes have a dual purpose - they serve both for collecting groundwater around the foundation and for transporting water from the roof.

The use of leaky pipes of wall drainage for the movement of water from the roof is also quite risky, and usually ends with flooding the basement during heavy rain.

It is best to carry out a separate drainage system to drain water from the roof and surface runoff from sites on the site.

Do-it-yourself drainage

Having decided on the type and type of drainage system, you need to purchase all the components and begin installation work. Knowing the technology, even a novice builder can cope with the task, so it makes no sense to hire professionals, because it’s easy to do it yourself.

To create a drainage system of any type, perforated pipes will be needed. Experts advise replacing special products, if there is no way to buy them, with ordinary sewer, making holes in them.

The gravel used for backfilling should be larger than the holes so that it does not get inside. It is important not to forget about the final element, that is, about the place where the water will finally fall. This may be a common gutter outside the site. You can also create your own drainage well, to remove precipitation in a septic tank or in a natural reservoir nearby.

The scheme of the ring wall drainage of the basement of the house

Drains are laid around the foundation of the house with a slope of at least 0.5% in the direction
to the filtering (prefabricated) well

Drainage pipes - drains, stacked along the foundation walls and create a protective ring around the house. At the corners, the drain ring breaks in the drainage wells. The water collected by the drains is discharged into a collection, collection well.

  • Used on the site for household needs and watering plantings.
  • Dumped to the terrain off-site.
  • Filtered in the underlying soil layers.
  • Head to the central sewer of the village.

The method of using drainage water is selected based on local conditions and the wishes of the owner of the house.

To discharge the drainage water into the central sewer of the village according to the rules, permission of the owner of the sewage network and payment for services for the reception and transportation of sewage are necessary.

In drainage wells settle, settle to the bottom and soil particles accumulatecarried by water in drains. In addition, through the wells, they monitor the proper functioning of the drainage system and periodically, as necessary, wash a portion of the drain from deposits accumulated there with a stream of water.

Drainage wells are installed at the corners of the turn of the track, when changing the slope or difference in height, as well as in straight sections every 40-50 meters. It is not necessary to set a well at turning angles if the distance from the corner to the nearest well is not more than 20 meters. No wells are allowed at two corners of rotation in a row.

Types of drainage pipes

On sale there are many types of pipes for drainage, with which you can create a high-quality drainage system. When installing drainage around the house with your own hands, it is necessary to study the characteristics of such products.

You can choose from the following options:

  1. Porous. They are made of expanded clay glass or plastic, they do not need perforation. But this is quite expensive stuff. For good drainage, it is worth taking large diameter pipes.
  2. Asbestos cement. The most reliable, but rather heavy and they require holes to be made.
  3. Polymer. Created from plastic, they are comfortable and lightweight, good in operation. Nowadays, almost always these are taken for drainage. pipes.
  4. Ceramic. Functional, but fragile, require perforation. Due to the additional grooves, moisture is collected more efficiently.

Slope of drainage pipes

The length of the drainage area between adjacent drainage wells should be no more than 50 meters. Drains are laid with a slope of more than 0.5% (0.5 cm 1 meter pipe length) towards the prefab well.

Tilt angle select so that at the bottom mark of the drainage ring around the house, the bottom edge of the drain is placed at 20 cm (to the height of the gravel bed) above the base of the foundation. At the top of the ring, the sole of the drain should be at 20 cm. below basement floor level.

It is not allowed to deepen the wall drainage (including gravel bedding) into the sand cushion of the foundation, so as not to reduce the bearing capacity of the pillow and the foundation.

To accommodate pipes with the necessary slope sometimes it is necessary to increase the distance between the base of the foundation and the floor level in the basement more than required for design reasons. This increases the cost of building the foundation.

In this case it is beneficial to abandon the construction of wall drainage and perform remote drainage. Remote drainage pipes are laid at a distance of 1-3 m from the foundation. In this case, the lower elevation mark may be lower than the bottom of the foundation.

Remote drainage can also be advantageously arranged to protect an already built house with a basement.

The main stages of installation

The first step is to draw a plan of the site on paper and determine how the drainage will go. Remember that water should drain to the lowest point - there must be a water tank. To determine such a site, you can use the theodolite device. Based on the plan, the required amount of materials is calculated.

Step-by-step instructions for performing work:

  • In accordance with the project, it is worth marking the site on the ground on paper.
  • After this, trenches are excavated, the size of which should take into account the pipe and gravel that will be buried there.
  • For digging, it is better to take a bayonet shovel - it will increase the speed of work.
  • The width of the ditch should be approximately half a meter.
  • The next step is to create a slope for the system.
  • In this case, height differences, which are marked by landmarks, are taken into account.
  • To the bottom formed the desired slope, use sand.
  • Geotextile material is laid on the base of the trench, which should have a good smell at the joints.

  • Then it is filled with gravel, taking into account the slope.
  • In a small fraction we make a chute into which the pipe should fit.
  • Next, we lay the drainage products, connect them in accordance with the technology, check that the desired slope remains.
  • You can control the direction with a stretched thread.
  • The pipe joints are connected using a special tape.
  • The next step is the installation of inspection wells.
  • If the drainage products do not have a filter layer, then it is worth wrapping them with geotextile, securing with a rope.
  • After that, gravel is poured on top of the layer up to 18 cm and above, on both sides with a smell we close the system with the edges of the lower geotextile.
  • The final chord will be falling asleep drainage river coarse sand.

Before closing the pipes, fill them with water and see how correctly it will go through the system. Until the structure is buried, you can still fix it.

Thus we get a good and functional system. Now, excessive rainfall and moisture accumulation are not afraid of your buildings. Drainage should be mounted not only around residential facilities, but also around the perimeter of utility structures.

Some tips for arranging drainage:

  1. In the event that the system passes under the road, on which vehicles often travel, then on the route section the pipes should be metal. Further, they must be tightly connected to the rest of the structure.
  2. When the trench is ready, you should first ram the bottom, and only then begin to fill with components.
  3. Pour drainage products with gravel should be 18-30 cm.
  4. Geotextiles are used to prevent contamination of the system. For the same purposes, you can wrap accessories with filter material.
  5. When assembling the structure, the possibility of its maintenance should be taken into account. To do this, create inspection wells. The best place for them are bends and joints.
  6. It is important that the drains do not touch and do not overlap the communications already in the ground - wires, pipes.
  7. Digging a trench should begin from the highest point on earth.
  8. Не стоит экономить на количестве геотекстиля, поскольку этот материал призван защищать от заиливания дренажную трубу.
  9. As a sump for water, it is easiest to attach a metal welded box.

Ring wall drainage device

How to make do-it-yourself wall drainage is clear from the drawings, which show the steps of the whole process.

Manhole

An inspection well is necessary to provide access to the system and carry out repair and maintenance work. The easiest way to purchase a finished item: it can be found in construction stores. You can also make a well on your own. To do this, you need a wide plastic pipe. Concrete rings are also suitable for making, or you can make a solid concrete tank. A human hand should be placed in the structure without hindrance for cases of repair or cleaning. The manhole must have a cover.

Filtering, draining layer on the foundation wall

On the foundation wall on top of the waterproofing place drainage plates or drainage mats. Special permeable slabs or mats made of polymeric material intercept water that seeps to the foundation wall. Through channels in slabs or mats, water goes down to the gravel sprinkle and then enters the drainage pipes.

In addition, drainage boards or mats protect the waterproofing from mechanical damage.

The draining plate is separated from the ground by a layer of geotextile. Manufacturers produce drainage mats with a layer of geotextiles already attached to their surface.

Draining plates can be easily made by yourself. Slabs are cast from large-porous sandless expanded clay concrete. Expanded clay of the largest and lightest fractions is used (20–40 mm and more), Slabs of this material will not only drain water, but also serve as insulation of basement walls. Plates with a thickness of at least 100 mm lay dry with dressing along the basement wall and cover with a geotextile cloth.

For insulation of basement walls, instead of drainage plates on the waterproofing of the foundation, heat-insulating plates are precisely glued - extruded polystyrene foam with a thickness of 100 mm, On top of the insulation plates, a profiled plastic membrane and geotextile are fixed.

There are membranes with a geotextile fabric already fixed on their surface. Through the channels of the membrane, water seeping through the geotextile flows down to the gravel dusting of the drainage pipe. The membrane also protects the insulation from soil damage.

Prefab well

It is a reservoir for collecting water. It is mounted at the lowest point of the system. Like a viewing, a prefabricated element can be bought ready-made or made with your own hands. Welded structures and reinforced concrete products are the most used. The well should be of such depth that, if sand and mud get into it, there will still be space. From time to time, it is necessary to clean the prefabricated water reservoir, removing residual dirt from the bottom.

Drainage pipes

On sale in the construction market there are drainage corrugated plastic perforated pipes with holes evenly spaced on the surface. Outside, the pipes are covered with a layer of geotextile, which protects the pipes from clogging with soil particles.

For the device of wall drainage, pipes with a diameter of at least 100 are used mm

Pipes are joined together using special couplings. At the turning angles, it is recommended to join the pipes with two fittings with a rotation angle other than 90 degrees. As a result, the rotation of the pipe will be smoother.

Blind area: meaning and installation

An additional element to protect the building from excess moisture is the blind area. It complements the drainage. The blind area is laying along the perimeter of the foundation of a waterproof material adjacent directly to the building.

The material should be placed strictly at an angle outward so that moisture can drain. Thus, getting on the blind area, water is immediately removed from the house. The contact of the foundation and walls with moisture will be minimal.

As a material suitable for the blind area, you can take asphalt, concrete, clay, stone, paving slabs. The first two are the most popular for the blind area and are used most often. This is due to the fact that they require less labor and investment. But such surfaces will not look too profitable. Paving slabs, stone and clay require more time and effort, but all the work will justify a remarkable result and an attractive appearance.

We talked about what drainage is, what its types and types exist. They also gave advice on the self-installation of various types of drainage. If you follow the technology, the process will go quickly and smoothly, and the result will definitely please. Modern and well-made drainage will protect the home from the negative effects of excess humidity, make it comfortable, extend the life of the unit.

Drainage wells

Drainage wells are assembled from finished plastic sections with a diameter of about 300 mm

You can use any other pipes of approximately the specified size. The bottom of the well should be below the level of the drainage pipes by 200-500 mm

Recommended install a plastic container (bucket) at the bottom of the well, in which soil particles will accumulate. To clean the well, it is enough to periodically get a container with deposits.

Every two to three years, wells clean and rinse drainage pipes with a stream of water.

Prefabricated storage well

The water collected by the drainage system is discharged into a collection storage well. A well is a reservoir where a certain amount of drainage water is accumulated. From the reservoir using a submersible drainage pump, water is periodically pumped out in a certain direction, for example, to a surface drain and then to the relief outside the site.

The capacity of the well - the volume from the bottom to the supply pipe, is chosen large enough so that the frequency of pumping water is not burdensome for the owners.

If the pumping process is automated, then well volume and degree of concern of the owners can be significantly reduced. To do this, a stationary drainage pump equipped with a float switch is installed in the well and electricity is supplied.

In the latter case, for a small volume prefabricated well device it is convenient to use the same design as for a drainage well. In order to increase the volume and ensure the operation of the pump, the collection well is made deeper than the drainage well.

It is necessary to ensure that the water level in the collection well did not rise above the level of the drainage pipes.

Drainage water from a collection well can be pumped into an underground tank, where it is accumulated and used for irrigating plantings, washing a car, and other household needs. It is beneficial if in the same capacity direct the water of the surface gutter from the roof of the house and from the sites on the site.

The device of the storage tank, similar to the design of a septic tank autonomous sewage. For example, such a well-shaped tank, like a septic tank, is made of standard concrete rings. You can also use plastic containers.

Water from the roof and surface gutter system in no case should it fall into drainage system. Drainage will not cope with the removal of large amounts of water during a rainfall and rainwater through the drainage can flood the basement. Pipes and wells of drainage and drainage systems must be isolated from each other.

If on the site low groundwater level, and the bottom layer of soil in the area is permeable, then the collection well can be made in the form of a filter well. Water from the well will seep into the permeable layer of soil. The depth of the well should be such that the filtration zone is in a permeable soil layer.

Freezing protection of the drainage system

Drainage system - drains, wells at the level of drains and below, in winter should be in a non-freezing soil layer. It is known that in spring, water on the surface of the earth appears much earlier than thawing soil frozen at a depth. Frozen drainage will not cope with the drainage of water from the foundation.

The soil surrounding the drainage may freeze if it is located above the estimated freezing depth. For example, for the Moscow region, the calculated depth will be 0.7 m Such a development of events is especially likely if the basement of the house is not heated or well insulated.

In case of danger of freezing, the soil is insulated, laying under the blind area of ​​a building of a PSB 35 foam plate or 100 extruded polystyrene foam mm

Ring drainage: material calculation

Basement wall drainage scheme

A deep ring drainage system can be made at any stage of building a house if it does not have a basement and there is no need to protect the basement floor from nearby groundwater.

If there is a chance of groundwater entering the basement, work on organizing a drainage system should be carried out before the foundation is made. In this case, it is more advisable to use reservoir drainage, we will talk about it a little later.

For calculation the necessary amount of materials for the organization of ring drainage, it is necessary to know the length of the outer perimeter of the foundation and the distance from the extreme point of the foundation to the place where it is planned to install the receiving well.

The number of running meters of drainage pipe necessary for the organization of the system will be equal to the length of the perimeter, summed with the distance from the extreme point of the foundation to the well, with a small allowance.

Geotextiles are also sold per meter, it is needed exactly as much as pipes are needed.

Next, you need to calculate the required number of wells and corner joints if you plan to use PVC pipes. To do this is quite simple, since the wells are installed in all corners of the foundation, regardless of whether they are internal or external.

Production of a ring drainage system

With the independent construction of a ring-type deep drainage system, the first thing you need to start work with is trench preparation. For this, a trench is being prepared around the entire perimeter of the foundation. The width of the trench should be at least 30 cm. The depth, without fail, is below the freezing point of the soil.

Already at the stage of preparation of the trench, it is necessary to determine in which direction the moisture should go and observe the slope. The standard slope is two degrees.

At the next stage, at the bottom of the trench is formed compacted sand cushion. The thickness of the pillow should be at least 50 mm. Next, it fits into the trench geotextile. Laying is done in such a way that the material lies on the bottom of the trench and has the same overlap on its walls.

For the convenience of further work, it is better to fix geotextiles on the walls of the trench with the help of pre-prepared hinges of steel wire or damaged welding electrodes.

Further the bottom of the trench is covered with fine or medium gravel, about 10 cm, after which it fits drain pipe. Crushed stone is also poured over the pipe.

Reservoir drainage (under the foundation slab)

This type of drainage is used to protect buildings based on a monolithic slab. Reservoir drainage - this is a type of water disposal, its peculiarity lies in the fact that it is made immediately before the foundation works.

The work on the manufacture of this type of drainage is rather laborious, because it is required to select a large amount of soil and then to fill up crushed stone and sand in its place.

In order to properly make drainage around the house, its production should begin with marking. To do this, the perimeter is measured and a rope or building cord is pulled along its edges. After that you can proceed to soil sampling. Since the insulated slab foundation is a shallow buried structure, the depth of the soil should not exceed 0.5 meters. As a rule, only the fertile soil layer is removed. Next, to the bottom of the pit geotextiles laid and wraps around its edges. After that, they start backfilling and tamping. sand cushions. Sand must be rammed with a mechanical vibrator. After a layer of sand, it is poured into the pit, leveled and rammed. crushed stone.

Along with the laying of crushed stone, it is laid along the perimeter of the pit drain pipe with observance of the necessary bias. At the corners of the future foundation, inspection wells are installed to maintain the system. The slope of the drainage pipe must be at least two degrees.

As a result, it should turn out that the drainage pipe is inside the crushed stone layer. If necessary, pipes can additionally be laid in several more places, this will strengthen the protection of the foundation from moisture.

At the outlet of the pipes of the drainage system, a receiving well is installed. This completes the work with the drainage system and you can proceed with waterproofing and further work on the foundation.

Preparatory work

Proper protection of the foundation of the house will help protect the building from moisture. You can perform this work comprehensively in several stages:

  1. At the very beginning, the base must be dug, and the excess land carefully folded next to it for reuse.
  2. If the house is not new, the soil is scrupulously cleaned from the tile structures and the old waterproofing is removed.
  3. The basis is thoroughly dried in open air, during wet weather, for this purpose, you can resort to the help of gas burners.
  4. Performing waterproofing foundation.

The main mistakes in the manufacture of drainage

In order to properly make the foundation drainage, it is necessary to know the basic mistakes made when installing it.

The most common mistake when building a drainage system is its combination with drainsgoing from the roof of the building. This cannot be done for the simple reason that in the autumn period, with a large amount of precipitation, the drainage system may not be able to cope with the removal of a large amount of water and begin to work in the reverse mode.

This will certainly affect the soil moisture and it turns out that all work on the drainage and drainage of the site will be in vain.

Third is the use of drainage pipes without an additional filter winding, which also affects the timing of clogging of the system.

Independent production of a drainage system is beneficial only in the case of deep ring drainage, manufactured along the outer perimeter of a ready-made foundation, since work on its implementation does not require the use of special equipment.
In the case of reservoir drainage, all work is much more complicated and requires certain skills from the master, as well as special tools, such as a level and a vibrator.

Features of the waterproofing device

Before discharging groundwater, it is necessary to waterproof the walls and floor of the basement, basement and foundation base. In this case, important points to consider:

  • the coating used for this purpose must be integral without gaps and crevices,
  • on the side on which there is a greater pressure of moisture, additional protection is applied with an insulating material,
  • necessarily the presence of a blind area around the house, the correct choice of its width and degree of inclination. It will allow to divert water from the building not only by drainage, but also by arranging a storage pit. If there are blind areas, no puddles are formed. It protects the foundation and soil from water penetration.

The blind area is important in protecting the building from moisture.

Organization of waterproofing for different types of base

Arrangement of protection of the constructed building from moisture differs in relation to the types of foundation. The most common are the bases of the slabs, pile, columnar, tape and monolithic types.

Here, the foundation is best wrapped with a rolled roofing material. If unevenness is found.

They must be removed with a leveling screed.

Then water-repellent material, insulation are placed on concrete slabs and the surface is leveled again.

Tape and monolithic foundations

To properly arrange waterproofing of these types of bases, the following several methods are used. They are diverse and quite effective.

  1. Treat the foundation with special mastic, only the surface should be dried and even. This method is not completely reliable, therefore, to strengthen the composition, it is necessary to cover it with a heater or build a wall of brick.
  2. As in the first case, you need to perform all the manipulations using hot bituminous mastic, and glue the roofing material in 2 layers on top with an overlap of about 15 cm.
  3. Using a special spray on a dry foundation, a water-repellent composition is applied. From above it is desirable to apply geotextiles, then waterproofing will last a long time.
  4. Another reliable and high-quality method is penetrating waterproofing. It contains quartz sand, cement and special additives. Such a mass has penetrating properties.

Moisture and precipitation are almost everywhere, so the waterproofing system is important in the process of protecting the building from their penetration.

Drainage system

Water drainage from the foundation is realized by the method of organizing drainage around the house. Before its implementation, you need to know some features of the work:

  • installation work is carried out in the summer in dry warm weather,
  • чтобы построить дренаж фундамента своими руками, понадобится от 2 до 3 месяцев,
  • после приготовления канав желательно над ними соорудить предохраняющий от дождя навес,
  • if the soil is in a loose state, the walls of the ditch must be properly strengthened,
  • in the appropriate instance, you need to obtain information about the state of the soil, as well as conduct a little experiment to determine where the most moisture is collected,
  • Having learned exhaustive information, one can depict the drainage scheme of a building, calculate how much material is needed and the cost of the structure.

Types of drainage

Before choosing a method of how to divert water from the foundation, you need to know what types of foundation drainage systems are and choose the right one.

In accordance with the design of the structure, three types are distinguished:

  • wall - is being built in a building with a basement or basement,
  • ring - suitable for buildings without a cellar, basement and basement,
  • formation - used under the foundation slab.

The ring drainage process

For the convenience of creating drainage for the foundation, you can make markings. For this purpose, various pegs are used, which can be easily removed.

Arrange a ring drainage as follows:

  1. At a distance of 5 m from the house, you need to dig a buried ditch greater than the height and width of the foundation of the house to fit a pipe having a diameter of 11 cm. There should still be indentations of 10 cm from each side of the pipe.
  2. Sand with a layer of up to 100 mm is placed at the bottom at a slope to the catchment. Thus, water can drain on its own.
  3. A drainage pipe is placed in a trench on a geotextile, its ends are fixed on the walls of the ditch. The pipe is laid in a trench, sprinkled with gravel at 50 cm, then wrapped with material twice. Construction joints are fastened and covered with sand or gravel.
  4. Pipes are connected, but not at right angles, so that sludge does not accumulate.
  5. For the construction of the inspection well, a pit is dug and a container with a hole for leaving the water is placed. Here you also need to put geotextiles at the bottom so that pebbles do not fall.
  6. If the soil is heavy and does not allow water to pass through well, a solid pipe can be used for drainage.
  7. With a large accumulation of water in the tank, you can pump it out and water garden plants.

Formation method of water discharge

Drainage under the foundation slab is necessary to ensure that the structural properties are maintained when in contact with water. This means removing water and preventing its effects on the foundation of the house. Read more about drainage work on the site in this video:

The drainage device under the base plate can be performed in various ways. One of the most popular is the reservoir form. Its essence is as follows:

  1. A moat with a depth of 1 m breaks out more than the dimensions of the building.
  2. A slight bias from the center to the sides is arranged.
  3. Geotextiles spread, then a 10 cm layer of sand and a 30 cm layer of gravel alternate to level the bottom of the pit.

Reservoir drainage is used in the presence of various aquifers, pressurized groundwater, placement of the basement below the aquifer and the appearance of capillary liquid.

Strip foundation drainage

Sewage is arranged for this type of foundation due to the high location of groundwater, highly moistened soil or the risk of flooding the site. Properly equipped drainage of the strip foundation of the house will help to avoid deformation of the concrete tape during thawing or freezing of the soil. Here it is also necessary not to forget about the correctly executed blind area, so that moisture could not easily penetrate to the base.

The production of wastewater for a shallow foundation should be carried out at a depth of about 80 cm. Drainage is built around the perimeter of the tape at a small distance from it. The pipeline is stretched at a depth of at least 1 m, below the sand layer by 20-30 cm. The peculiarity of the work here is that the volume of excavation is very large. All about the drainage of the tape base, see this video:

To choose the right type of drainage, you need to know the features of the soil. Only in this case will it effectively and reliably fulfill the function of a drainage system.

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