Drainage of the foundation is necessary to drain groundwater from it or drain the soil if it is waterlogged. Drainage of the foundation is included in the package of measures for waterproofing the foundation. The need for this arises for the reason that moist soil is able to expand during freezing and, accordingly, to destroy all existing buildings, including the foundation of the house.
Strip and slab foundations are most affected by “heaving” soils. When choosing any of these base options, a drainage system is needed. To make a drainage system around the foundation with your own hands is quite simple, it is enough to find out the level of soil freezing and the depth of groundwater flow.
Drainage: what is it and why do it
To protect buildings from internal flooding, drainage is used. This is a drainage system designed to eliminate the excessive accumulation of water around a house or land. This is especially important for houses located in the valley. Water can accumulate around objects due to various reasons: it can be melting snow, an increase in the level of ground moisture, and the special properties of this type of land. And also because of the special location of the building, due to which the water around it cannot independently drain.
The owner of the house should think about building a drainage system in the following cases:
- elevated groundwater levels are normal in this area,
- if liquid starts to accumulate in the basement due to melting snow,
- in the corners on the floor of the ground floor premises mold began to appear,
- if the foundation of the building is constantly wet or washed with water,
- the area is characterized by high rainfall,
- the soil on which the house stands, by its natural properties, does not absorb moisture well,
- fungus began to appear on the walls,
- plot with a house located in a lowland.
In practice, drainage is a device based on pipes that remove excess moisture entering them. Experts advise always to create such a system, since it is an effective method of extending the life of any buildings.
Types of designs
Before you do the drainage around the house with your own hands, you should decide on the desired option. There are several ways to do this. If the drainage is done correctly, then any of the methods will be effective. But each requires different time and financial resources.
You can equip these types of systems:
- Outdoor drainage. This method is quite simple, and consists in creating open trenches (ditches) around the house where water will drain and then absorb into the soil. Despite the simplicity of the construction of such a drainage system, outwardly it looks unpresentable, and quickly becomes worthless - trenches crumble and break.
- Closed drainage. This method involves laying perforated pipes in trenches of the earth. Moisture gets into them and moves away from home. This method is the most effective, but relatively complex in terms of execution.
- Backfill drainage. Here you need to dig ditches around the object, as with the open method, and then fill them with crushed brick, gravel or rubble. Trenches are closed by turf. This method of drainage is durable, but has a low degree of moisture transmission. Backfill drainage is almost impossible to maintain.
Do you need wall drainage around the foundation of the house?
Many developers decide to build a house with a basement. The cost of building a basement is comparable to the cost of building an ordinary floor.
In the basement, you can have only non-residential, auxiliary rooms - a laundry room, a gym, a sauna, a boiler room, a workshop, a pantry, etc. All these rooms with the best comfort and convenience would be located on a regular floor or attic.
In the recent past, it was decided to build houses on strip foundations of deep laying. The device in such a basement house was really beneficial - the foundation served as the outer walls of the basement premises.
Application in modern low-rise construction of lightweight structures and shallow foundation makes the device in the basement house unprofitable.
Nevertheless, lovers of tradition and solidity often choose a house with a basement on a strip foundation of deep laying. To comfortably use the rooms in the basement, the basement must be protected from soil moisture.
This design is created along the perimeter of the foundation. If the house has a basement or ground floor, it is better to make just such a drain. Of course, it is more correct to foresee it at the construction stage, when the foundation is only being erected and the area around it is not filled up.
If the house has long been erected, wall drainage is also quite realistic to create, but large-scale excavation work will be required.
Features of the arrangement of wall drainage:
- Pipes are laid in the excavated areas, they should lead to the viewing wells from the corners.
- The lower edge of the equipment should be adjacent to the final reservoir, which leads to the site.
How to protect a basement or ground floor from water and moisture
Water in the ground is constantly present. The groundwater level, the amount of overhead water, the soil moisture in the area vary according to the seasons of the year and depend on the structure and properties of the soil, rainfall, terrain and type of coating on the site.
If the house is located on a slope, then, as a rule, it is necessary to drain water flowing down the slope from the house. Water flows down the slope both on the surface and on the underground horizons.
To protect the basement from water, two lines of defense are arranged:
- An annular drainage around the house, at the level of the base of the foundation, which intercepts and diverts from the basement walls most of the water tending to flood the basement.
- Waterproofing the walls and floor of the basement, designed mainly to protect against capillary moisture of the soil.
Only basement waterproofing, without drainage, leads to the fact that water still finds a hole. If not immediately, then after a few years. Raw basement - money down the drain.
If you decide to make a basement or ground floor in the house, then I recommend to do wall drainage, you will not regret.
Wall drainage is done simultaneously with the foundation device.Its cost is minimal, compared with the cost of protection against water already flooded or damp basement.
If you want to take a chance, save on a drainage device and abandon its device, then conduct a thorough investigation. Estimate the seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level on the site. Does a spring appear in spring. Find out from the neighbors if they have drainage or if they are drowning the basement.
The lack of drainage, as a rule, will require strengthening the waterproofing of the foundation and increasing the cost of its installation.
The design of the wall drainage is adapted solely to protect the basement or ground floor from the water. If it is necessary to solve other problems, for example, to lower the groundwater level in the entire area or to reduce the water saturation of the heaving soil at the base of the foundation, then other types of drainage are used.
The installation of wall drainage around the basement, as a rule, is mandatory:
- With a constant or seasonal rise in groundwater level above the base of the foundation.
- If a spring appears on the site in the spring.
|A drainage device is mandatory if the seasonal groundwater table (groundwater level)|
or the tip is higher than the bottom of the foundation.
- For a house located on a slope, from the side of the water running down the slope.
- If the site has a waterproof layer of soil.
The last condition is caused by this. A foundation cushion of the foundation and the sinus of the foundation pit under the foundation is usually covered with permeable soil to reduce the forces of frost heaving. If the soil on the site is waterproof, then surface water will seep into the permeable backfill of the foundation and accumulate there.
Ring (trench) drainage
This type of drainage is arranged further from the foundation than the wall. It is necessary to retreat 2-3 meters from the building, and then do the work. Ring drainage is mainly used on clay soils, since there it is quite simple to create and use. If the house does not have a basement or basement, this system will be the best option.
Features of the arrangement of ring drainage:
- A clay castle distinguishes between the foundation and the design of the drainage system.
- This type of drainage should be created deeper than the lowest point of the foundation.
- Drainage products should be placed on a layer of crushed stone or small stone, since these materials pass water well.
Where to direct water from the roof
Water flowing from the roof through the drainpipes should not leak into the ground near the walls of the house.
You can find a description of the device of the drainage system, which directs water from the roof to the wall drainage pipes. In this case, the near-wall drainage pipes have a dual purpose - they serve both for collecting groundwater around the foundation and for transporting water from the roof.
The use of leaky pipes of wall drainage for the movement of water from the roof is also quite risky, and usually ends with flooding the basement during heavy rain.
It is best to carry out a separate drainage system to drain water from the roof and surface runoff from sites on the site.
Having decided on the type and type of drainage system, you need to purchase all the components and begin installation work. Knowing the technology, even a novice builder can cope with the task, so it makes no sense to hire professionals, because it’s easy to do it yourself.
To create a drainage system of any type, perforated pipes will be needed. Experts advise replacing special products, if there is no way to buy them, with ordinary sewer, making holes in them.
The gravel used for backfilling should be larger than the holes so that it does not get inside. It is important not to forget about the final element, that is, about the place where the water will finally fall. This may be a common gutter outside the site. You can also create your own drainage well, to remove precipitation in a septic tank or in a natural reservoir nearby.
The scheme of the ring wall drainage of the basement of the house
|Drains are laid around the foundation of the house with a slope of at least 0.5% in the direction |
to the filtering (prefabricated) well
Drainage pipes - drains, stacked along the foundation walls and create a protective ring around the house. At the corners, the drain ring breaks in the drainage wells. The water collected by the drains is discharged into a collection, collection well.
- Used on the site for household needs and watering plantings.
- Dumped to the terrain off-site.
- Filtered in the underlying soil layers.
- Head to the central sewer of the village.
The method of using drainage water is selected based on local conditions and the wishes of the owner of the house.
To discharge the drainage water into the central sewer of the village according to the rules, permission of the owner of the sewage network and payment for services for the reception and transportation of sewage are necessary.
In drainage wells settle, settle to the bottom and soil particles accumulatecarried by water in drains. In addition, through the wells, they monitor the proper functioning of the drainage system and periodically, as necessary, wash a portion of the drain from deposits accumulated there with a stream of water.
Drainage wells are installed at the corners of the turn of the track, when changing the slope or difference in height, as well as in straight sections every 40-50 meters. It is not necessary to set a well at turning angles if the distance from the corner to the nearest well is not more than 20 meters. No wells are allowed at two corners of rotation in a row.
Types of drainage pipes
On sale there are many types of pipes for drainage, with which you can create a high-quality drainage system. When installing drainage around the house with your own hands, it is necessary to study the characteristics of such products.
You can choose from the following options:
- Porous. They are made of expanded clay glass or plastic, they do not need perforation. But this is quite expensive stuff. For good drainage, it is worth taking large diameter pipes.
- Asbestos cement. The most reliable, but rather heavy and they require holes to be made.
- Polymer. Created from plastic, they are comfortable and lightweight, good in operation. Nowadays, almost always these are taken for drainage. pipes.
- Ceramic. Functional, but fragile, require perforation. Due to the additional grooves, moisture is collected more efficiently.
Slope of drainage pipes
The length of the drainage area between adjacent drainage wells should be no more than 50 meters. Drains are laid with a slope of more than 0.5% (0.5 cm 1 meter pipe length) towards the prefab well.
Tilt angle select so that at the bottom mark of the drainage ring around the house, the bottom edge of the drain is placed at 20 cm (to the height of the gravel bed) above the base of the foundation. At the top of the ring, the sole of the drain should be at 20 cm. below basement floor level.
It is not allowed to deepen the wall drainage (including gravel bedding) into the sand cushion of the foundation, so as not to reduce the bearing capacity of the pillow and the foundation.
To accommodate pipes with the necessary slope sometimes it is necessary to increase the distance between the base of the foundation and the floor level in the basement more than required for design reasons. This increases the cost of building the foundation.
In this case it is beneficial to abandon the construction of wall drainage and perform remote drainage. Remote drainage pipes are laid at a distance of 1-3 m from the foundation. In this case, the lower elevation mark may be lower than the bottom of the foundation.
Remote drainage can also be advantageously arranged to protect an already built house with a basement.
The main stages of installation
The first step is to draw a plan of the site on paper and determine how the drainage will go. Remember that water should drain to the lowest point - there must be a water tank. To determine such a site, you can use the theodolite device. Based on the plan, the required amount of materials is calculated.
Step-by-step instructions for performing work:
- In accordance with the project, it is worth marking the site on the ground on paper.
- After this, trenches are excavated, the size of which should take into account the pipe and gravel that will be buried there.
- For digging, it is better to take a bayonet shovel - it will increase the speed of work.
- The width of the ditch should be approximately half a meter.
- The next step is to create a slope for the system.
- In this case, height differences, which are marked by landmarks, are taken into account.
- To the bottom formed the desired slope, use sand.
- Geotextile material is laid on the base of the trench, which should have a good smell at the joints.
- Then it is filled with gravel, taking into account the slope.
- In a small fraction we make a chute into which the pipe should fit.
- Next, we lay the drainage products, connect them in accordance with the technology, check that the desired slope remains.
- You can control the direction with a stretched thread.
- The pipe joints are connected using a special tape.
- The next step is the installation of inspection wells.
- If the drainage products do not have a filter layer, then it is worth wrapping them with geotextile, securing with a rope.
- After that, gravel is poured on top of the layer up to 18 cm and above, on both sides with a smell we close the system with the edges of the lower geotextile.
- The final chord will be falling asleep drainage river coarse sand.
Before closing the pipes, fill them with water and see how correctly it will go through the system. Until the structure is buried, you can still fix it.
Thus we get a good and functional system. Now, excessive rainfall and moisture accumulation are not afraid of your buildings. Drainage should be mounted not only around residential facilities, but also around the perimeter of utility structures.
Some tips for arranging drainage:
- In the event that the system passes under the road, on which vehicles often travel, then on the route section the pipes should be metal. Further, they must be tightly connected to the rest of the structure.
- When the trench is ready, you should first ram the bottom, and only then begin to fill with components.
- Pour drainage products with gravel should be 18-30 cm.
- Geotextiles are used to prevent contamination of the system. For the same purposes, you can wrap accessories with filter material.
- When assembling the structure, the possibility of its maintenance should be taken into account. To do this, create inspection wells. The best place for them are bends and joints.
- It is important that the drains do not touch and do not overlap the communications already in the ground - wires, pipes.
- Digging a trench should begin from the highest point on earth.
- Не стоит экономить на количестве геотекстиля, поскольку этот материал призван защищать от заиливания дренажную трубу.
- As a sump for water, it is easiest to attach a metal welded box.
Ring wall drainage device
How to make do-it-yourself wall drainage is clear from the drawings, which show the steps of the whole process.