Concrete floors are mostly popular in industrial premises and commercial buildings, but they are also made in the garage, cellar, workshop, and various outbuildings. Even though concrete can withstand enormous loads and various conditions, it still needs to be protected.
A concrete floor with an unprotected surface may begin to crack and peel, resulting in dust. Basically, this happens when the concrete used is of poor quality, or the pouring technology was violated.
In order to protect the concrete coating, special compositions are used. The paint not only gives an aesthetic appearance, but also protects the floor from damage and wear, helps to hide all defects and smoothes out unevenness, as well as such a floor will not be how many and easier to care for.
In order to paint the concrete floor, you can choose one of the colors provided below.
Epoxy paint is a strong and durable coating, and with it you will protect the concrete base for a long time and extend its life. Also, this type of paint is used for painting cement floors. With the help of epoxy paint, the cement floor will be much more resistant to external and chemical influences, acquire waterproofing properties, and, of course, will become much more presentable.
Acrylic paint. This is an aqueous composition based on acrylic resin, with various special polymers added to it. With the help of such a paint, the concrete floor will receive additional corrosion resistant properties, and the protective film created will protect it from mechanical and chemical influences.
Polyurethane enamel has a two-component composition, and it can be used both indoors and outdoors. Enamel is highly resistant to weathering and temperature extremes, and is also considered environmentally friendly and economical. As a result, the concrete floor becomes perfectly smooth, and most importantly resistant to damage.
The polyurethane primer is colorless, it provides reliable filling of concrete pores. The concrete floor becomes much stronger, and with the help of such a primer the dedusting of the base is also done.
Epoxy primer provides water resistance to the concrete floor and makes it more resistant to mechanical and chemical influences. The primer provides adhesion to the concrete base with a finish coating. Most often it is used before applying epoxy paint, but it is used as an independent one.
Concrete floor painting
Before you start painting or priming the concrete floor, you need to prepare the foundation. To do this, we clean the surface of dirt, dust and grease stains. It also removes concrete chips, and if there are holes in the floor, or holes need to be putty and sanded.
After that, we proceed to the primer of concrete, for better adhesion. Only after that it is possible to proceed to painting the concrete floor using a roller, brush or spray painting.
It is necessary to paint the floor at a temperature not lower than + 10C. Apply a thin layer of paint for better and faster drying. In order for the paint to dry completely, you need to wait about three days, at this time the floor can not be subjected to any loads. So you can give concrete more strength and protect it from dust.
How to paint a cement floor
Concrete surfaces, including the floor, prefer not to be painted, but left in their original form. However, even a material as strong as concrete is subject to mechanical damage, chips and chemical attack. Therefore, the procedure for painting a concrete floor is not just a work to improve the room, but a way to protect the coating. But it remains to be seen how to paint a concrete floor?
The choice of paint for concrete
For painting concrete floors, alkyd and epoxy paints are usually used, which are distinguished by unique anti-slip and antistatic properties, as well as great resistance to chemicals. The epoxy substance must be prepared, mixed and tinted before use, the alkyd substance does not need to be prepared for use. But before working with alkyd paint, the concrete surface should be primed, epoxy paint does not require this.
In addition to paints, soil mixtures are widely used, which are designed to transform a very neglected floor. Tinting impregnations give concrete a bright color coating. Polymer compositions are able to hide all defects and smooth the surface, the use of special putties allows any concrete coating to be made monolithic. To provide additional decorative floor will help glitters and flocks that do not fade over time.
When choosing which paint is best for a concrete floor, it is recommended to take into account the characteristics of the room. For example, in industrial places where mechanical damage or shock types of surface loads are often possible, a high reliability coating is required. In this case, it is best to use wear-resistant paints.
For thin-layer bulk coatings for civilian purposes, a varnish for a concrete floor or polyurethane enamel is chosen. To finish the floor in garages and treat concrete elements of landscape design, we use tools that are designed to cover various industrial premises, which are based on solvents and epoxy enamels.
To paint the concrete floor in the living room, it is necessary to take a composition with a water base. For surface treatment on balconies and corridors, it is better to buy two-component polyurethane elastomers. If you want waterproof coating, give preference to single-component polyurethane dyes. Next, we consider the advantages of each type of paint composition for a concrete floor.
Epoxy paint is a very strong and durable coating that extends the useful life of the floor and guarantees a presentable appearance. Such paint is quite resistant to external influences and various chemical environments - acids, alkalis, fuels and lubricants, salt solutions, has waterproofing properties, can withstand heavy loads and perfectly adheres to concrete.
The epoxy does not wear out and does not turn yellow, even if you cover the concrete floor in hangars, production shops, car repair shops and parking lots. You can use this paint in open areas, as it is resistant to atmospheric phenomena, and indoors. Another advantage of this paint is the possibility of applying it directly to fresh, not sufficiently dried concrete.
The most important drawback of epoxy paint for concrete flooring is its two-component nature: before use, it must be mixed. Some problems may occur with repeated staining. In addition, if you want to change the color of the concrete floor to another, it will be quite difficult to do.
Acrylic paint for concrete surfaces is an aqueous composition based on acrylic resin with the addition of various polymers. Such paint prevents the destruction of concrete due to corrosion, creates a protective polymer film on the surface, which prevents various mechanical and chemical influences.
The coating, which is formed by acrylic paint, is quite reliable and durable, moisture-resistant and waterproof, so it can be used to paint the floor in the garage, basement, on the balcony and stairs.
Applying acrylic paint is simple and convenient. To do this, you can use a brush, rollers or spray, and unlike epoxy paint, one layer is enough, although you can cover it with two layers for more confidence. Full drying time is 12-14 hours.
Polyurethane enamels, as a rule, are two-component, however, this does not affect their high quality. They are designed to finish concrete floors both indoors and outdoors. The advantages of the paint are its high weather resistance, economy, environmental friendliness, high hiding power, excellent chemical and mechanical strength, and the formation of a perfectly smooth glossy surface.
Apply polyurethane enamel at a temperature of at least 5 degrees above zero and humidity not more than 75%. Since the paint is two-component, for a start the first component is thoroughly mixed, and then the second is added to it. It is advisable to paint the concrete floor in two stages: apply a thin uniform layer without spills and smudges, re-apply the paint, but no later than one day after the first painting of the concrete floor.
The main disadvantage of polyurethane enamel is its long drying time - 2-14 days. We can explain such a significant time spread by such moments: the paint does not stick after two days and you can walk on it, the floor covering finally gets mechanical resistance in a week, and after two weeks - chemical resistance.
If you do not have paint for a concrete floor, then you can simply prime the surface with a polyurethane compound. The primer can be used as the only protective coating, as well as for processing the coating before applying the topcoat directly. Primers are polyurethane and epoxy.
A polyurethane primer is able to ensure reliable filling of small pores of concrete, its dust removal and hardening, as well as excellent adhesion to the coating. This substance is resistant to gasoline, detergents, chemicals, fats, oils and precipitation.
Judging by the name, a polyurethane primer is used before staining with polyurethane enamel, because they have almost identical compositions. However, the paint can be used only 12 hours after the completion of priming the floor. The advantages of this primer - in the convenience and ease of application, reducing the consumption of top coat, improving the adhesion of the finish layer.
Epoxy primer is suitable for treating concrete surfaces before applying epoxy paint to it. But it is also customary to use this primer as an independent coating, which ensures the closure of all pores and cells in concrete, as well as dust removal and hardening of the floor surface.
Advantages of the epoxy primer are water resistance, water tightness, improved adhesion of the finish coating, resistance to mechanical wear and chemicals. Before applying an epoxy primer, the concrete surface must be sanded and debris and dust removed from it. You should know that for 20-30 minutes the material is able to lose its qualities, so you need to apply it quickly enough.
The operational properties and durability of the painted concrete floor depend primarily on the quality of surface preparation. First, make sure that there is no dirt, debris, old paint, stains of paints, fuels and lubricants, or bitumen on the floor. Traces of such liquids can be removed with detergents. Water on the concrete floor should not collect in drops.
It is also necessary to remove concrete chips from the floor. After that, it is necessary to seal and putty down all existing pits, and then carry out grinding using special grinders. A similar procedure can improve the adhesion of the paint layer and the base.
To get rid of dust, you can use a vacuum cleaner or an ordinary mop. As practice shows, all concrete floors are equally dusted. To prevent this process, it is necessary to dedust the concrete coating and process the top layer. Dust removal is carried out using different compositions of polymers that protect the floor not only from the presence of dust, but also from abrasion and abrasion.
They strengthen the concrete surface with impregnations of a reinforcing type, which are called toppings. These substances are presented in the form of dry mixtures of quartz, cement and other fillers, as well as plasticizers and dyes. Similar toppings can also be used with decorative intentions, making your concrete floor glossy and smooth.
The composition of the toppings clogs the pores of the concrete floor, preventing the penetration of harmful components into the surface and ensuring the stability and strength of the concrete structure, facilitating operation, which significantly saves money on coating care. This tool is usually applied to the surface 7 days after its installation. The use of reinforcing agents will increase strength and dedust the coating for 5 years.
Primer concrete floor
To ensure good adhesion of the concrete floor and paint, it is recommended that you first coat the surface with a primer. There are many varieties of this tool (Beolux Aqua, Grid), which can be used outdoors and indoors. These are acrylic quick-drying materials that are quite resistant to oils, gasoline, salt solutions, chemical detergents, mineral compounds and water.
For applying a primer, it is customary to use foam rubber rollers that allow to distribute the composition well on the floor surface. Put a primer so. The composition is mixed, if necessary, diluted to 3% of the mass of the primer itself. It is recommended to add quartz sand to the substance to avoid the effect of a slippery floor - up to 10% of the primer mass.
The primer must be applied in 1 or 2 layers to a dry, clean coating using rollers, spray or brush. It is recommended to use the composition at a temperature of 5 - 40 degrees above zero and a relative humidity of 85%.
You have already decided how to paint the concrete floor, now you need to decide which tool to use in your work - a roller, brush or spray. The choice of staining option will depend on which paint formulation was selected. The spray paint is applied in one layer, which is able to replace 3 layers, which are applied in the usual way. This method of applying paint is quite simple, economical and takes little time.
When using a spray gun, remember that with it you can process the main part of the concrete surface, and you will have to paint other hard-to-reach spots and corners with an ordinary paint brush. The paint thickness is only up to 0.2 millimeters.
Acrylic paints and enamels are applied to the floor surface using rollers. Suitable for this are wide, which have a short pile - simple front and velor rollers that allow you to apply paint evenly and quickly. To make it convenient to work, it is worth fixing the rollers on long handles. To paint the corners, use narrow small brushes.
The concrete floor is painted at a surface temperature not lower than plus 5, indoor air temperature not less than 10 degrees above zero and air humidity not more than 80%. Water-based polyurethane paint does not emit flammable and smelling substances during operation. Containers and tools are washed with water.
It is allowed to paint fresh or wet concrete, but not earlier than 5 days after pouring. When painting a concrete floor, first of all, it is customary to apply strokes in different directions, then the paint is rubbed on the surface. Layers of the coloring composition should not be too thick: thin layers dry faster and look better.
The creation of thicker layers leads to a long drying time of the coating. Make sure that the previous coat is completely dry, and only then proceed to applying the next coat of paint. Application of the second layer is allowed only after 24 hours.
After the concrete floor painting procedure, it is recommended to wait until the painting composition has completely dried out. This process should occur at a humidity of 70-80% and air temperature plus 18-20 degrees. Only after 3 days are mechanical loads allowed, but if the conditions differ from those presented, then the drying process of the concrete floor can take a longer time, or faster.
The drying time of the coating also depends on the conditions under which the paint was applied. For example, if the coloring matter was applied to fresh concrete, the drying period will increase significantly. Under normal conditions, the polymerization of the coating finally takes place on the seventh day, when the maximum mechanical and chemical stability indicators are reached. Therefore, do not rush to use the surface as soon as possible, let it dry completely so that it acquires the proper wear resistance.
Thus, concrete paint is able to increase the strength of the coating, protect it from dust and increase the waterproofing of the screed. But all this is achievable only if the right choice of the coloring composition is made. In addition, the sequence and competent execution of all stages of painting the concrete floor is of great importance.
Чтобы в гараже цементный пол не пылил, стяжку железнят – покрывают сухим цементом по свежему раствору или укладывают дополнительный слой с полимерными топпингами. The purpose of such a coating is to block surface pores, densify the upper floor structure. A dense film forms, which prevents dust from entering the coating, it is convenient to clean on this floor.
If for some reason the screed was not protected by toppings and the floor is dusty, the budget is limited and there is no time to dry the cement, there is a more convenient way out - to paint the concrete with deep penetration solutions. They create the necessary effect:
- Close open pores on the surface of the screed,
- They hydrophobize the top layer of concrete, strengthening it,
- Prevent dusting, facilitate cleaning.
Painting improves the aesthetic properties of the floor, reduces its abrasion, and increases resistance to chemicals and oil products.
The most affordable and easy to use two-component epoxy-based paint. It can be applied both to dry floors and to wet concrete after laying and initial setting of cement mortar.
- Affordable price - from 270 rubles per 1 kg,
- Abrasion resistance,
- Chemical neutrality
- Does not fade in the light and in the sun,
- Fast setting and drying speed speeds up the repair process.
- A high drying speed can also be a drawback - the paint must be mixed and applied over a large area quickly so that transitions of the painted areas do not form and the coating is uniform.
The solution is made on the basis of dissolved rubber, therefore, it has a number of properties of this material:
- High elasticity
- Impact resistance,
- Waterproofing, resistance to moisture and oil products,
- Quick drying - you can walk on the floor in 30-60 minutes,
- Long service life - up to 10 years,
- Applying one layer is enough.
- High price. A good solution costs from 500 rubles per 1 kg.
Polyurethane is a universal polymer of high strength. Paints based on it penetrate the structure of concrete and strengthen the upper layers, reliably clogging the pores of the surface.
- Resistance to humidity and oil products,
- Resistance to temperature changes,
- Polyurethane is not afraid of abrasion and scratches,
- The paint forms a glossy aesthetic coating.
- High cost - more than 300 rubles per 1 kg,
- The glossy finish is absolutely smooth, which reduces the adhesion of the wheels of the car to the floor. There is a need to install stoppers or laying rubber mats under the car.
Alkyd-urethane paints are a composite of alkyd and polyurethane, so the solution has the advantages and disadvantages of these components.
The coating is resistant to abrasion, but not suitable for garages with heavy traffic cars (workshops, car services). The surface of the floor is glossy. The cost of a kilogram of solution is about 290 rubles or more.
How to paint the floor in the garage
Painting will prevent dusting of the floor in the garage, but the foundation before coating must be prepared:
- Large garbage is sweeping out with a broom,
- It is necessary to carry out wet cleaning - this removes most of the dust accumulated in the pores of the floor,
- Coating the base with a deep penetration primer will reduce paint consumption and beat the dust, tighten the screed in the upper layers.
Now you can start staining. To apply the solution, rollers with a medium pile on a long handle are used.
Before applying paint, you must familiarize yourself with the instructions: some formulations can be applied to a damp base, others - exclusively to a dry one.
Staining is as follows:
- Paint is poured into the tray
- A roller is dipped in paint and squeezed. This is necessary for a uniform distribution of the solution on the floor surface and the pile, so as not to form sagging,
- Application begins from the far corner, moving squares along the far wall towards the exit.
It is important to paint quickly and efficiently, especially with regard to quick-drying paints - the edges of the squares should not dry out. Otherwise, the coating will be heterogeneous from an aesthetic point of view.
For some paints, a coating of one applied layer is enough, for others - 2. The second can only be applied after the first layer has dried.
It is possible to drive a car into the garage after the finish coat has dried, that is, after 12-24 hours according to the instructions.