Live fence consists of a metal wire with a voltage of 2 to 10 kV, but when touched, the voltage is low, about 30 volts, and therefore not fatal.
An energized fence was first described in 1889 by Mark Twain. The first to use this fence in 1936 was New Zealander William Bell Gallagher.
Farmers usually use such a fence to keep cattle so that they do not go beyond a specific area. Often, along with the fence, barbed wire is also used to prevent the animal from jumping over the fence.
Fences to hold people
First, barbed metal wire was used for the fence, then it was replaced with a nylon thread with stainless steel.
After several electric shocks, the cattle understands that they cannot go outside the site. After this, farmers often turn off the current. Horses have the most understanding time.
Fences to hold people
During the war, live fences were used in prisons and concentration camps to deter people. This prevented the escape. At such fences the blow was fatal. During the First World War along the Dutch-Belgian border, the German invaders built a 300-km live fence. And in our time, live fences are used in Russian prisons.
What it is
As the name implies, this is a fence, the protective functions of which are enhanced by the action of electric current. As you know, all living things are subject to the influence of electricity, affecting the physical and mental state of the body. Depending on the purpose, the types and parameters of electric hedges vary over a wide range. Two main types can be distinguished:
- Protecting the perimeter from the penetration of foreign animals or preventing their own from leaving space,
- Protection of the perimeter from the penetration of a person from the outside or exit.
The principle of operation of electric hedges of both types is the same. Voltage is applied to the metal wires attached to the insulators. As a result of the contact of the object with the wire, an electric circuit arises in which the object acts as a conductor of electricity from a source in the form of a wire to ground, that is, ground. The passage of high voltage current creates an intolerable level of discomfort, pain. At high voltage and amperage, this can lead to thermal burns and death.
The scheme of the device and the size of the electric fence for livestock
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Pasture for animals
The most common are the electric fence as a fence for livestock. The organization of such a place allows to ensure the safety of animals from technogenic factors in the event of their uncontrolled movement from an unfenced territory. An equally important circumstance is the ability to protect the rest of the territory from the penetration of animals and damage to property and people.
Fencing for pasture fencing is a very light, inconspicuous structure. Invisible even from a short distance, a thin wire is laid in several tiers along low poles.
The physical strength of such a structure is very low, and any animal can pass through a fence that is not under current. The diameter of the boundary wires is from one to three millimeters.
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Similarly, a fence is arranged for walking pets.
Drawing of the device of the electric fence for pets
Keeping them in cells and aviaries can be harmful to your health and mental state. The construction of fenced areas is quite expensive and leads to a deterioration in appearance. Recently, small electrical fences mounted inside a residential area are gaining popularity. Animals do not feel isolated and have a significant degree of freedom.
At the same time, they cannot leave the limited territory. Such an electric fence can be made even easier than for fencing pastures of large and small cattle. On the supports one row of wires is installed. The effect is achieved by simple training, during which the animal feels the effects of current and does not risk approaching a dangerous object.
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The penetration of wildlife into exploited territories is sometimes a big problem. Farmland attracts animals with the availability and abundance of feed. The expansion and complication of the civilization infrastructure has led to the fact that the appearance of large animals at its objects poses a real threat not only to them, but also to the safety of people. The collision of a car moving at high speed with a large ungulate is deadly for both the animal and passengers . The problem has existed for a long time, but it was with the advent of inexpensive electric hedges that the possibility of solving it arose.
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An electric fence consists of racks, insulators, a current conductor and connecting elements. For racks any materials that meet specific conditions are used. It can be wood, metal, plastic, concrete. The insulators on which the wires are mounted are usually made of plastic. The use of conventional porcelain insulators is quite possible, but their installation may be more expensive and not always available.
Drawings and schemes of electric hedges for various animals
The main element in the electric fence is the current conductor. As such, traditionally use steel galvanized wire with a thickness of one to three millimeters. Installing, fixing and tensioning it is not always convenient and not very technological. Therefore, it is recommended to use wire for long-term fences using sufficiently strong pillars.
Conductive elements based on polymers became an alternative to wire:
- Dacron cords up to five millimeters thick
- Braided ribbons from one to four centimeters,
- Plastic tapes with foil surface.
They incorporate metallic threads or electrically conductive foil. Polymeric enclosing elements are much more convenient to install, do not require complex tension. Repeated use does not lead to loss of consumer properties, which is an attractive quality for the installation of temporary or movable fences.
Invisible from a certain distance, the steel wire makes it difficult for animals to develop a reflex that keeps them from approaching the fence. Fencing elements based on polymeric materials are much more noticeable, since they are painted in catchy colors and have a larger size. The animal quickly perceives the established border and does not try to cross it; it is easier for it to maintain a safe distance.
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To ensure its functions, the electric fence must be connected to a power source. Depending on the configuration and purpose of use, they differ. The most common is the use of a conventional connection to a household power line. The product kit must include a current or voltage converter giving the necessary output parameters.
The power consumption is affected by the distance between the extreme points of the network, voltage, wire diameter and losses in the enclosure itself.
Power sources such as batteries or solar converters are used. This allows you to use an electric fence away from communications, which more fully meets the needs of animal husbandry. However, autonomous sources have their obvious drawbacks. Solar converters depend on illumination and will not work in the dark. Batteries must be kept charged, which can be difficult.
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Lightning protection and grounding
An energized fence becomes vulnerable to lightning discharges. Lightning protection of the electric fence is carried out by installing a special breaker that turns off the power source with a sharp increase in load. Sometimes an electric fence needs to be grounded.
Depending on the environmental conditions and the design of the fence, it is carried out using recessed metal pins or tires. In some designs of hedges, grounding wires are not earthed, and the neutral wire is located in the lower tier. The distance to the working wire is recommended about thirty centimeters.
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First of all, the fence posts are mounted on which the electrical equipment is mounted.
Installation process of electric fence
Unlike conventional fences, the distance between the posts can be large. They can stand thirty meters or more apart. The wire is quite light and strong, which allows you to pull it without sagging. Using elastic polymer conductive elements, the task is further simplified.
Poles are installed on a prepared foundation or in a previously made recess in the ground. Stands in the corner should be secured by struts. It should be said that there are no strict requirements for the installation of fence supports for electric fences. Equally common are supports for wires that simply stick into the ground. Unlike other fences, the verticality of the column and the reliability of fixing in the ground are not critical.
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To organize the passage for animals through the fence section, swing gates are installed. Despite the name, this is a common fence with a temporarily dismantled electric fence.
The scheme of the device passage in the electric fence
The contact wire is fixed in an insulating handle equipped with a special connector. The connector can be fixed on the contact element of the column of another section of the fence or, conversely, separated from it. In this case, the total conductive network is either closed or open.
When organizing the gate, it is necessary to take into account that animals are afraid to approach the wires, so the gate should be made wide so that the animal does not feel fear. The distance should be sufficient so that it does not notice the wires on the working sections. When using tapes and cords with signal signs, the width of the gate should create a sense of security in the animal.
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After installation of all elements of the fence, power source and electrical fittings, the building is tested. The electric fence must meet the operational requirements for voltage and current parameters. After making sure that the design characteristics are achieved, the structure can be used for its intended purpose.
An example of a mounted electrical fence
Periodically, at least twice a year, electrical checks should be repeated to make sure that it is in good condition. Only an intact fence can be operated, therefore it should be inspected as necessary. The integrity of the fence can be violated by animals, falling trees, the appearance of tall grass and other causes, the consequences of which must be eliminated.
Electric fence / Electric shepherd
Our company is the official representative of the New Zealand company Gallagher, which is a world leader in the production and supply of electric hedges and components for them. Here you will find the entire list of products necessary to create a safe and cheap electric fence system. In addition, we offer a wide range of elements for creating a traditional stationary fence.
Gallagher solutions are unique equipment. If you take a professional approach, then your choice is Gallagher. Unlike most electric fences, suitable mainly for household plots, Gallagher is designed for use in conditions of significant loads, as well as for operation on an industrial scale.
An electric fence has many advantages over other types of fences. It acts as a psychological barrier and, therefore, is safer than a traditional fence. Animals remember a short, sharp, but safe blow and learn to avoid the fence, thereby reducing the likelihood of injury and wear on your fence. The physical load on the electric fence is virtually zero.
In addition, the electric fence is economical because of the cheapness of the material and ease of installation.
You can install the electric fence yourself or with the help of our professionals.
Electric fencing is ideal for keeping all kinds of animals: from domestic animals such as horses, sheep, cows to wild animals such as deer, moose or wild boars. Abroad, electric fences are used to keep animals such as tigers, elephants and chimpanzees. The proposed systems are effective both for protecting the perimeter from animals beyond its limits, and for preventing their entry into the perimeter from the outside. Gallagher's electric hedge systems are known worldwide as safe and reliable solutions.
For more information on Gallagher products, go to: www.pass. rf
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Of course, such a device will not be able to keep a large herd in a certain territory, but if you need to grab a few pets and you do not have time to look after them all day, such development will be very effective.
The electric fence is as follows - the area is fenced with bare wire suspended on insulators. A voltage of 1.5 - 5 kV from a pulse generator is supplied to it. The sinusoidal current can reach 15mA, and its strength in the pulsed mode can increase up to 500 mA. Therefore, if some animal from the herd touches such a wire fence, then it will receive a very unpleasant electric shock.
Such a blow will be completely safe for the animal, but it definitely will not want to move further. If you tie some bright rags or flags to the hedge so that the animal can distinguish the fence, then you can develop a conditioned reflex in the animal and it will not fit into such a hedge.
Such an electric fence is not difficult to manufacture and under the strength of almost anyone who understands radio electronics. Having worked on it for half a day, you will free yourself time for the whole summer.
See Figure 1, here you see the circuit diagram of the "electric whip". It consists of a high-voltage generator that generates a voltage of 1.6. 2 kV with a frequency of 1 kHz. The duration of such a pulse is about 100 ms, its value depends on the values of the capacitor C1 and resistors R1, R3. The main part in this circuit is the TP1 high voltage transformer. As an armature and core, you can use the line transformer parts from any old TV. Winding the primary windings L1 and L2 will not be so difficult, since they consist of 55 turns of PEV-10.25. They must be wound on a common frame and placed on one of the halves of the core. As for the high-voltage winding L3, it is better to take it ready from the TV. It often happens that it fails and leads to the replacement of a horizontal transformer, so try to reel it yourself. It consists of 1600 turns of any enameled copper wire, which is 0.12 mm in diameter, wound 100 turns in a row. After each row, a gasket consisting of condenser paper must be laid and then continue wrapping in the other direction.
When your coil is completely ready, it will be necessary to soak it with paraffin. To do this, melt in a clean jar, for example, from a canned small piece of a candle and lower the coil into it. Hold it in molten paraffin for two or three minutes, then remove and let the coil dry. Then it is required to put the windings on the core very carefully, and grease the ends of the ferrites with glue Moment and tighten with a thread bandage.
Assembly is best carried out by hanging mounting on a getinax or fiberglass plate with a size of 100 by 150 mm. The transistor VT1 must be placed on a radiator with an area of about 100 cm2. For this, you can use a small segment of an aluminum corner or other profile, which is suitable for configuration.
Плату лучше разместить в каком-то изолированном, герметическом корпусе из оргстекла или полистирола. Здесь же следует установить и источник питания на 6В.*********
Читайте также - клетки для кроликов своими руками
To develop such an electric fence, you can use different types of wire - copper, aluminum or galvanized steel wire, which will be at least 1 mm in diameter.
The wire must be pulled between the racks - wooden stake, spaced every 25 m. Under the insulators you can use plastic bottles (or glass), which are put on the racks with a neck (Fig. 2). Wrap the wire around the neck of each bottle and make sure that it does not touch the bushes or tall grass.
Place the device near the fence to ensure reliable contact of the second wire (plus power supply) with the ground. Use a metal pin to ground that digs into the ground, or bury a metal sheet to a depth of 1 meter.
If you did everything right and all the details are working, then the electric fence should immediately work. What needs to be done is to achieve maximum voltage from the generator. This can be done with variable resistors R1 and R2. The magnitude of the voltage can be judged by the distance that is pierced by the spark between the electrodes.
Such an “Electric Shepherd” allows you to fence an area of 5 to 10 hectares. Since this is an electrical installation, it is not allowed to touch exposed parts and wires.
Therefore, it is best if you install warning signs next to the fence so that casual passers-by or children will not be hurt. In a thunderstorm, such a device must be turned off, and the fence should be grounded.
If you follow all the rules and precautions in the manufacture and operation of the electric fence, then in itself it is quite safe.
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The benefits of using electric shepherd for grazing cattle
Electric fence for cattle allows for safe grazing of cows and calves. This device is a protective perimeter that does not violate the surrounding landscape, but at the same time reliably protects the herd from predatory animals. The use of such devices will save on working pastures. After all, the herd will not be able to scatter and will be reliably protected from external sources of danger.
Principle of operation
In fact, such a fence is an ordinary wire fence to which an electric current is connected. A pulse is generated at intervals of one second. The electric discharge is so small that it is unable to harm the animal, however, it causes unpleasant sensations.
Thus, a conditioned reflex occurs in cows, which prevents them from approaching the perimeter of the pasture. In the case of an attempt to penetrate a predator or an outsider, an electric discharge is quite capable of scaring off the intruder. Of course, this can not be compared with an electric shock, but the sensations will be rather unpleasant, and, most importantly, memorable.
The design is easy to install and does not require special skills and knowledge. Power is supplied from a conventional 220v electrical network. The security system can work in standalone mode, receiving electricity from batteries or solar panels. Currently, such fences are the best solution for loose livestock grazing.
Choose the right electric fence
Before you make a purchase, you need to decide what kind of hedge you need. They are permanent and temporary. Then it will be useful to outline an approximate plan for the future corral. In this case, it is necessary to take into account all the features of the landscape (hills, lowlands, ponds).
Important! It is not recommended to install an electric fence in the immediate vicinity of underground utilities and places for laying high-voltage cable!
Pay attention to how you will connect the fence. If there is no permanent source of electricity nearby, then it makes sense to give preference to those models that operate on battery or solar panels.
Grounding also plays a large role in the efficiency of the entire system. In addition, it would be quite good if the fence is equipped with a lightning rod.
Various accessories also deserve your attention. These include the material from which the posts are made (mainly wood or metal). Gate type and lock design. Here, focus on your individual preferences.
This Finnish company has long been manufacturing and selling electric hedges. All products are subject to mandatory certification and are high quality products. Here are the technical specifications of electric shepherds from this manufacturer:
The design has two lines for connection and can operate on battery power.
Products of the company "Riks-tv"
This company is the only domestic manufacturer that manufactures components for electric hedges:
Differs in convenience of installation and low price. In addition, the company assumes obligations for unlimited post-warranty service.
This French company produces mainly permanent electric hedges. The difference from similar products is the presence of light indicators, with which you can monitor the health of the system:
Has a double electrical impulse, which increases the pain. The products are made in full compliance with international standards.
How to make an electric fence with your own hands
If you have certain skills, this will not be difficult. Consider this by the example of manufacturing a single-wire fence. This is the easiest, but at the same time the best option for fencing the grazing area.
This cattle shepherd is made using metal poles. Of course, you can use wood, but metal is more convenient for mounting the structure. One end of the column must be sharpened, and the other cut the thread. Insulators are screwed onto the thread, which serve to pull the power line. The length of such a line is usually about 2000 meters.
Recommended pillar length is 120 centimeters. At the pointed end you need to weld a small crossbar. When mounting the structure, it will be possible to press on this crossbar with the foot, and the pole will be easier to enter the ground. It is recommended to install poles every ten meters. Consider this fact when calculating the necessary materials.
You can make a voltage converter yourself or purchase a pulse generator. For the first option, you will need transistors, a transformer, a battery and an ignition coil. All parts of the converter must be placed on a small plate and put into a wooden box. The ignition coil can be taken from a car or motorcycle. The converter assembly scheme can be found on the Internet, but any electrician can cope with it without problems.
Important! Do not use uncoated steel wire! It is most susceptible to corrosion and will not be able to serve for a long time!
The best option would be to use galvanized wire with a diameter of 2.5 mm.
Porcelain insulators are best used, they are ideal for various weather conditions and are not afraid of moisture. For the same purpose, you can use cropped plastic bottles.
To increase the efficiency of the fence, many increase the power of the converter, while reducing its resistance. This is not recommended. Voltage applied to the wire can be dangerous for animals and humans.
Remember to use a lightning rod. This will protect the structure during a thunderstorm. The resulting design must be divided into corrals and equipped with gates.
Benefits of using
The use of such structures is convenient and practical. They are easy to install and carry. Cattle graze on their own and do not need constant supervision. This saves on the number of workers. Interestingly, the cost of such products is low and even a novice farmer can afford to purchase it.
The cost depends mainly on the protected perimeter and additional accessories. Therefore, it is better not to engage in the artisanal production of an electro-shepherd, but to purchase a ready-made kit. In this case, you can be 100% sure of the quality and safety of the fence. When the animals have a steady reflex, and they will not come close to the fence, the electricity can sometimes be turned off.
Accustoming pets to an electric fence.
You will need to spend time training him to help your pet learn the boundaries of the fence. Instructions should be attached to your own electric fence, but in principle there are general points to be followed.
The first time you have to bring the animal to the fence so that it feels a blow from a smooth wire. The resulting discomfort is deposited in the memory of the animal, and it tries not to cross the boundary of the fence. Animal training can take several weeks, but most often 30 minutes is enough for training.
Installation and operation
Before installation, you should consult with the contractor and determine where you will install the fence. There may be a problem with the fact that your land is very dry, hard soil or even frozen ground. There will be weak electrical conductivity and, as a result, a weak current, not able to scare away animals.
Make the gates really large with a width of about 9 meters. Therefore, a well-trained animal, accustomed to an electric fence, will refuse to even approach a narrow gate 3.5-4 meters wide.
If the fence is set too close to the property of a neighbor, it can be damaged due to negligence during landscaping, excavations or other earthworks. Electric fences do not require frequent maintenance, but should be checked regularly. Some problems can arise from lightning, however, some fence suppliers offer lightning protection with financial guarantees.
If you are not sure that your dog will be able to adapt to such a fence, then check to see if the seller provides product testing. Find out if there is a money back guarantee, if the system cannot work with your dog, then you can get monetary compensation. It will be useful for the seller to ask at what age the dogs can be trained.
Many homeowners install an electric fence in combination with a physical fence. Keeping a variety of pets requires discipline from the owner. And electric fences are often more humane than a large number of other conditions.